The order is composed of two families: Plakinidae and Oscarellidae. Homoscleromorphs have an extremely poor fossil record due to their tiny spicules and encrusting forms, which rarely preserve well. Image by: 'Waielbi' (Wikimedia Commons; Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Public Domain Dedication). Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License. Esta página se editó por última vez el 22 jul 2020 a las 04:28. Files are available under licenses specified on their description page. Antiguamente se los incluía dentro de las demosponjas como el orden Homosclerophorida. This form is usual in calcareous sponges but is less common in other sponges. Primarily, their body consists of a thin sheet of cells over a frame (skeleton). Sponge Research Developments. Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation. Homoscleromorpha ←. As their name suggests, Poriferans are characterized by the presence of minute pores called ostia on their body. Palaeoworld: 27, pp. ; Vacelet, J.; Renard, E.; Cárdenas, P.; Borchiellini, C. (2012). A few preserved spicules from the Carboniferous could potentially be from a homoscleromorph sponge, but definitive records are only known from the Mesozoic. This might suggest that under-explored areas and cryptic habitats might just be where these unique sponges thrive (Gerovasileiou and Voultsiadou, 2012). Image by Jaleigh Q. Pier, licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License. 3-10. This page was written by Jaleigh Q. Pier. 1-29. Sponges are known to possess remarkable reconstitutive and regenerative abilities ranging from common wounding or body part regeneration to more impressive re-building of a functional body from dissociated cells. These sponges typically inhabit shady locations, under overhangs and inside caves. Invertebrados. Calcarea 687(1): 3-10. Hydrobiologia. 2012. Reproduction is viviparous and the larva is an oval form known as an amphiblastula. They have a leucon body plan and small tetraxon spicules. Hydrobiologia: 687, pp. Nosenko, T., Schreiber, F., Adamska, M., Adamski, M., Eitel, M., Hammel, J., Maldonado, M., Müller, W. E. G., Nickel, M., Schierwater, B., Vacelet, J., Wiens, M., & Wörheide, G. (2013). It is the only order in the monotypic class Homoscleromorpha. CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (, "Molecular phylogeny restores the supra-generic subdivision of homoscleromorph sponges (porifera, homoscleromorpha)", "No longer Demospongiae: Homoscleromorpha formal nomination as a fourth class of Porifera", https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ympev.2013.01.010, "Overview of the Homoscleromorpha sponges diversity in the Mediterranean", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Homosclerophorida&oldid=985429811, Short description is different from Wikidata, Taxonbars using multiple manual Wikidata items, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 25 October 2020, at 22:27. Archaeocyatha Image by: Philippe Bourjon (Wikimedia Commons; Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 4.0 Public Domain Dedication). 416–427, https://doi.org/10.1093/icb/ict042. No longer Demospongiae: Homoscleromorpha formal nomination as a fourth class of Porifera. –– 3. Demospongiae Image by: Nick Hobgood (Wikimedia Commons; Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Public Domain Dedication). [10], Sperling, Pisani and Peterson 2007, cited in: The Cambrian Explosion p. 80, Erwin and Valentine 2013. Actualmente son consideradas como una clase aparte, y se reconoce un único orden: Homosclerophorida Dendy, 1905. Homoscleromorpha are exclusively marine sponges that tend to encrust on other surfaces at shallow depths. [5], There are 117 species in this group divided into 9 genera.[6]. 17. Brusca Richard C.& Gary J. Brusca. In: Maldonado M, Turon X, Becerro MA, Uriz MJ (eds) Ancient Animals, New Challenges. Deep metazoan phylogeny: When different genes tell different stories. These sponges are massive or encrusting in form and have a very simple structure with very little variation in spicule form (all spicules tend to be very small). Early sponge evolution: A review and phylogenetic framework. Homoscleromorpha is now recognized as the fourth class of sponges. Porifera  Above images from left to right are: Left image by: Parent Géry (Wikimedia Commons; Public Domain). Original caption: "A. Oscarella lobularis (Oscarellidae): two color morphs from NW Mediterranean Sea (photos courtesy of Jean Vacelet & Thierry Pérez); B. Plakortis simplex (Plakinidae) specimen hanging from the ceiling of the 3PPs cave (NW Mediterranean Sea), a paradise for Homoscleromorpha species (at least 8 species belonging to 4 different genera are present); red arrow indicates the presence of Oscarella microlobata and a green arrow Plakina jani (photo courtesy Thierry Pérez); C. Plakina jani (Plakinidae) detail of the lobes, 3PPs cave (NW Mediterranean Sea) (photo courtesy Jean Vacelet); D. Spicules of Plakinidae: triods, diods and lophose calthrops; E. Spicules of Corticium candelabrum (Plakinidae): calthrops and candelabrum (heterolophose calthrops); F. Corticium candelabrum NW Mediterranean Sea (photos courtesy of Jean Vacelet)." The aspiculate species are the genera Oscarella and Pseudocorticium. –– 4. Van Soest, R.W.M., et al. Gazave, E.; Lapébie, P.; Ereskovsky, A.V. A few preserved spicules from the Carboniferous could potentially be from a homoscleromorph sponge, but definitive records are only known from the Mesozoic. Unless otherwise indicated, the written and visual content on this page is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License. A strange liver sponge. Right image by: Philippe Bourjon (Wikimedia Commons; Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 4.0 Public Domain Dedication). Although they are very similar, Plakinidae have structural spicules while Oscarellidae are spicule-free. No longer Demospongiae: Homoscleromorpha formal nomination as a fourth class of Porifera. The Integrative Taxonomic Approach Applied to Porifera: A Case Study of the Homoscleromorpha, Integrative and Comparative Biology,  53(3), pp. Presentan lámina basal que delimita las capas internas (tejidos). [4] Therefore, it has been recognized as the fourth class of sponges. –– 1. By (Van Soest et al., 2012) (Wikimedia Commons; Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Public Domain Dedication). Highly simplified overview of porifera phylogeny based in part on the hypothesis of relationships presented by, Homoscleromorpha. Homoscleromorphs have an extremely poor fossil record due to their tiny spicules and encrusting forms, which rarely preserve well. Recent studies are exploring sponge diversity within cave environments, where Homoscleromorpha may be more prevalent. McGraw Hill Interamericana. 2012. The spiculate genera in this group are Aspiculophora, Corticium, Placinolopha, Plakina, Plakinasterella, Plakortis and Tetralophophora. [8][9], On the basis of molecular and morphological evidence, the two families Plakinidae and Oscarellidae have been reinstated. Presentan lámina basal que delimita las capas internas (tejidos). The Digital Atlas of Ancient Life project is managed by the Paleontological Research Institution, Ithaca, New York. –– 5. Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License, Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 2.0 Generic License, Integrative and Comparative Biology,  53(3), pp. Living homoscleromorph sponges can be divided into two families; Oscarellidae and Plakinidae. Development of this project was supported by the National Science Foundation. This page uses Google Analytics. Gazave, E. et al. [5][6], It has been suggested that Homoscleromorpha are more closely related to eumetazoans than to the other sponge groups, rendering sponges paraphyletic. Homoscleromorpha. Se reconocen 117 especies agrupadas en 9 géneros. Center image by: 'Waielbi' (Wikimedia Commons; Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Public Domain Dedication). All structured data from the file and property namespaces is available under the Creative Commons CC0 License; all unstructured text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. Marine Caves of the Mediterranean Sea: A Sponge Biodiversity Reservoir within a Biodiversity Hotspot. In the Mediterranean Sea, 82% of the species in this taxon can be found in caves, and 41% of them are found nowhere else. Los homoscleromorfos (Homoscleromorpha) son una clase de esponjas (ex phylum Porifera). Las Homoscleromorpha se caracterizan por presentar un esqueleto variable (con o sin espículas de silíce). Homosclerophorida is an order of marine sponges. PLoS ONE: 7(7), pp. Presentan una larva oval del tipo cinctoblastula. Homosclerophorida is an order of marine sponges. Las Homoscleromorpha se caracterizan por presentar un esqueleto variable (con o sin espículas de silíce). See captions of individual images for attributions. Sponge leucon body plan modified from original image by 'Philcha' (Wikimedia Commons; Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Public Domain Dedication). See original source material for licenses associated with video and/or 3D model content. 416–427, https://doi.org/10.1093/icb/ict042, Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License, Key features of group: leucon body form, small tetraxonic silica spicules if present. They have a leucon body plan and small tetraxon spicules. Spicule image by Jaleigh Q. Pier is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License. Boury-Esnault, N., Lavrov, D.V., Ruiz, C.A., Pérez, T., 2013. [7] This view has not been supported by later work using larger datasets and new techniques for phylogenetic inference, which tend to support sponges as monophyletic, with Homoscleromorpha grouping together with Calcarea. This page was last edited on 15 December 2019, at 23:39. Homoscleromorpha is phylogenetically well separated from Demospongiae. Image by: Parent Géry (Wikimedia Commons; Public Domain). 2007. It is the only order in the monotypic class Homoscleromorpha. –– 6. Oscarella lobularis. Stromatoporoidea By, A sea cucumber on a chicken liver sponge (, Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Public Domain Dedication, Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 4.0 Public Domain Dedication. Ecologically, they usually favor relatively shallow marine shelves, but some species may also be found at depths approaching 1000 m. In both Homoscleromorpha and Eumetazoa layers of cells are bound together by attachment to a carpet-like basal membrane composed mainly of "type IV" collagen, a form of collagen not found in other sponges – although the spongin fibers that reinforce the mesohyl of … Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 67(1), 223–233. Estas esponjas pueden ser masivas o incrustante, y están frecuentemente asociadas a cavidades oscuras o cuevas submarinas Hexactinellida A sea cucumber on a chicken liver sponge (Plakortis sp.) Otra característica que diferencia las Homoscleromorpha de otras esponjas es la presencia de un flagelo en los pinacocitos, o células de recubrimiento interno (endopinacocitos) o externo (ectopinacocitos) In one study, 70% of all Homoscleromorpha families and genera of the Mediterranean Sea were discovered within caves of the region. However due to advances in using genetic data to reconstruct sponge phylogeny, this newly recognized clade was discovered. 2.ª Edición. Laumer, C. E., Fernández, R., Lemer, S., Combosch, D., Kocot, K. M., Riesgo, A., Andrade, S. C. S., Sterrer, W., Sørensen, M. V., & Giribet, G. (2019). Original caption: "A. Oscarella lobularis (Oscarellidae): two color morphs from NW Mediterranean Sea (photos courtesy of Jean Vacelet & Thierry Pérez); B. Plakortis simplex (Plakinidae) specimen hanging from the ceiling of the 3PPs cave (NW Mediterranean Sea), a paradise for Homoscleromorpha species (at least 8 species belonging to 4 different genera are present); red arrow indicates the presence of Oscarella microlobata and a green arrow Plakina jani (photo courtesy Thierry Pérez); C. Plakina jani (Plakinidae) detail of the lobes, 3PPs cave (NW Mediterranean Sea) (photo courtesy Jean Vacelet); D. Spicules of Plakinidae: triods, diods and lophose calthrops; E. Spicules of Corticium candelabrum (Plakinidae): calthrops and candelabrum (heterolophose calthrops); F. Corticium candelabrum NW Mediterranean Sea (photos courtesy of Jean Vacelet)."