Examples are anhydrous calcium sulfate, anhydrous copper(II) sulfate, and anhydrous magnesium sulfate. If you are 13 years old when were you born? Some cities actually use glycerin to help clean out the sewer pipes. Even though these are all non-metals, which normally says, "covalent bonds", this is the one case where some of the bonds are ionic. You kit also has Epsom salts, which are magnesium sulfate heptahydrate (hepta=7). Here chlorine gas is reacting with sodium metal. a6) What is the charge of the red regions and what element is responsible for that charge? It will take 3 or 4 washings to remove the contaminants. Remember, you can shake the water and biodiesel fairly vigorously at this point. Below explains why methanol and sodium hydroxide is present. If a compound has one OH group, it's called an alcohol. won't share any electrons and therefore won't bond with other elements. a3) What color do you see in your third wash water? One end of the biodiesel molecule is slightly charged (red and blue regions), so water tends to adhere to that end as shown in the below image. So that averages around 12. I have even mixed it with gasoline and used it in a lawnmower. In the last lab you used copper(II) sulfate pentahydrate (penta=5). Remember the high TDS values of our tap water. There's no need for you to try to use the TDS meter. of all elements. Do two washings with purified water, and transfer those washings to the 50 mL beaker that you just emptied. The two chloride ions will push away from each other because both are If you don't have any paper towels handy, toilet tissue will work. Notice the hydrogen atoms connected to oxygen are about a +0.21 charge. This is a metal (sodium) bonded to a group of non-metals (NO3). So this is the usual covalent bond. Take a photo of yourself shaking the large test tube with the biodiesel in it. image is also methanol but using something like the spacefilled model above Identifying Bronsted-Lowry acids and bases? Now we need to see if it is polar or non-polar. The blue regions are both the hydrogen atoms and carbon atoms which are connected to an oxygen atom. Glycerin and methanol are polar covalent compounds, and sodium hydroxide is an ionic compound. So now we can wash out those salts using purified water. a2) The water sinks to the bottom. Which has the higher density, biodiesel or water? This implies that the bonds between ionic compounds are quite strong and require high temperatures to break them. We then realized that the biodiesel that was floating on top of the wash water must have coated the metal probes at the bottom of the TDS meter. Just a couple of scoops from the microspatula will help. The clean up of raw biodiesel is a good application for learning about ionic and covalent compounds. So read the The non-metals become negative ions because they gained electrons. The metals had the positive charge and the non-metals had the negative charge. Cellulose is also chains of glucose molecules with hundreds or thousands of glucose molecules which have five OH groups each. In contact with each other, the metals are usually giving away one or That biodiesel was collected in the middle test tube. If you wish, you can copy the below summary into your email (or Word document) and type your answers after the descriptions. glycerine is an organic compound. Transfer the glycerin to an empty test tube. All of the chemicals we worked with were ionic compounds. Answer Save. Pour out the tap water from the 50 mL beaker and dry out the beaker with a paper towel. Classify the following compounds as ionic, polar or nonpolar covalent. Covalent bonds consist of pairs of electrons shared by two atoms, and bind the atoms in a fixed orientation. Silica Gel:   You probably have found those little white packets in some items that you buy. Let's assume the purified water has removed the salts that the tap water had introduced to the biodiesel. Your job will be to remove the methanol and sodium hydroxide from the biodiesel layer. Roll cursor over the image to see the + and - charged poles. It's called that because The four small white balls are hydrogen atoms. When this happens, the metals become positive ions because they lost one or more the negative electrons. Pour the tap water into the large test tube with the biodiesel. To remove water, we need something that is like water. So that didn't work. You see two layers. The metal and non-metal will attract each other because they have opposite charges. The glycerin will dissolve, and the biodiesel will not; however, the water in the small sample of biodiesel will pull out some of the sodium hydroxide present in the biodiesel. Ionic bonding is a type of chemical bond that involves the electrostatic attraction between oppositely charged ions, and is the primary interaction occurring in ionic compounds. Nitrogen is 3.04 and hydrogen is 2.20. 1 decade ago. You can use a pipette to transfer the biodiesel to the syringe, or you can pour the biodiesel slowly into the syringe. Sugars also have several OH groups. And place a small amount of glycerin in another test tube (middle test tube). We also have to choose one that will not dissolve into biodiesel nor dissolve too much into the water. there's a + and - charge separation (like the ends of a pole). The carbon atoms attached to oxygen atoms are around +.14 to +0.19 charge. That's why biodiesel it is covalent. Cotton fibers are mostly chains of cellulose. So some of that volume was only methanol which is now dissolved in the water. What is the rising action of faith love and dr lazaro? Attach a photo of the two test tubes that had phenolphthalein added. call this a polar covalent bond. It is called the "spacefilled" In other words, the metal and non-metal become ions (charged atoms). If you shake it, it might form an emulsion which doesn't want to separate. Ionic and covalent bonds are the two extremes of bonding. You can guarantee money will leave the generous person and end up owned There are two types of atomic bonds - ionic bonds and covalent bonds.They differ in their structure and properties. Clays:  You may have made pottery or seen people make pottery. is Glycerine ionic or covalent? If you decide to simply pour it, you might want to use a funnel on the syringe to keep it from spilling. If the Epsom salts were heated, those 7 water molecules would be driven off and you would have anhydrous magnesium sulfate. They are standard colors used for models. bond (even though two electrons are involved) Because they pull It should only take about 10 minutes. Attach a photo of yourself shaking the large test tube with the biodiesel in it. What this means is that when metals combine with non-metals, there is a very uneven pull on the shared electrons. So avoid vigorous shaking at this point. So the NH4+ ion is attracted to the Cl- ion making an ionic bond and an ionic compound. That means the pH has gone down close to the pH of 8.2. because oxygen has a strong pull on electrons around it. Some ionic bonds contain covalent characteristics and some covalent bonds are partially ionic. Comparing the pH strip with the color chart, we see that the pH is around 12. 8 outer electron configuration (octet). The gray area is where the carbon and 3 hydrogen That means the pH is dropped below 8.2, and closer to pH 7. We were concerned that squeezing the paper towels might release water, but that didn't happen. Syringe as a filter:  Locate the syringe in your kit and pull out the plunger. If we get rid of sodium hydroxide, then the pH will drop down closer to the neutral pH of 7. It is clear if below pH 8.2. We look up the electronegativity of oxygen and hydrogen. This is a 3d view of the Periodic Table of the Elements. The same thing is true about non-metals and metals. Ionic and polar compounds are usually soluble in water. On the third wash, shake the test tube rather than just rocking it back and forth. If the biodiesel were passed over those white copper(II) sulfate crystals, they would turn blue as they absorbed the water. The middle molecule is a map of the charges on sucrose. one electron each. Here is a closeup of the two test tubes where you added the purified water. On our third wash we got a pink color. NH3 is ammonia, which has covalent bonds, but a hydrogen ion (H+) is attracted to the nitrogen, turning NH3 into NH4+ ion. So you don't need the third test tube. However, since sodium and chlorine are now oppositely a1) Is pH 8.2 alkaline or acidic? a. These carbon atoms sit between two oxygen atoms that are pulling their electrons away from them. The required photos can either be attached to the email or inserted in the Word document if going that route. Fox: 'My short-term memory is shot', Fox News' big Arizona call angered Trump camp: NYT. That guarantees most of it separates so that when they drain off the water, there's almost no biodiesel in the water. As you get rid of the more methanol from the biodiesel, it is less likely to form an emulsion. We had to clean the metal probes at the bottom of our TDS meter with Fantastic before we could get it working properly again. a gas used in refrigeration systems. So it read out a very low TDS level. You can see how four fluorine atoms can connect to one The dotted lines are the hydrogen bonding that happens between hydrogen and oxygen. We would have to remove the biodiesel from the wash water thoroughly before we could use the TDS meter properly. all choices. Glycerin and propane have 3 carbon atoms each. This is called an electrostatic map of the molecule. Oxygen is 3.44 and hydrogen is 2.20. represent the atoms are purposely made smaller so that you can see the tutorial at the below link. Let's first test the pH of the glycerin and biodiesel layers. atoms are now positively charged (+1) because the protons in the nucleus On the back panel of the kit is the large test tube that is storing the raw biodiesel. The wash water should turn purple. So tear off pieces from a paper towel. They use a clay because it absorbs water and becomes moldable. The top layer is the mostly biodiesel, and the bottom layer is mostly glycerin. a3) What color do you see in your third wash water? It's like putting a greedy person together with a generous person. The red areas represent negative regions, the blue represent positive regions, and the gray represent neutral regions. that give up their 1 or 2 electrons the easiest. In the process of using tap water to wash the biodiesel, we have removed all or most of sodium hydroxide, methanol, and glycerin that were involved with the reaction that made the biodiesel. Be sure to title the email "Lab 10". When this reaction occurs, sodium hydroxide is reformed. Water is a polar compound. it is polar but not ionic. Remember sodium hydroxide (NaOH) is very alkaline because it releases OH- ions. What is the molar mass of a compound if 22.0 g of the gas occupies 5.60 L at STP. Earlier we examined the charges in methanol. In fact the non-metals usually strip the outer electrons off of the metal leaving the metal a positive charge and the non-metal a negative charge. electrons. Since water dissolves sodium hydroxide and the other contaminants, we can assume all contaminants are gone when the pH is close to 7. a saturated fat is it is polar but not ionic. The halogens (group 17) are one electron short of a stable We can also assume that methanol and glycerin has been also removed. Favorite Answer. 1. The crystals were a bright blue.