Biological and Biomedical Instrumental-relativist orientation (based on what is rewarding). No significant differences were found in the development of moral thinking between Catholics, Protestants, Jews, Buddhists, Muslims or atheists. For example, an action is perceived as morally wrong because the perpetrator is punished. Justice itself relies heavily upon the notion of sound reasoning based on principles. Conforming to the rules for one's social role is not yet fully understood. The process of resolving conflicting claims to reach an equilibrium is called "justice operation". You will receive your score and answers at the end.  This often occurs in moral dilemmas involving drinking and driving and business situations where participants have been shown to reason at a subpar stage, typically using more self-interested reasoning (stage two) than authority and social order obedience reasoning (stage four). At the age of 16, Stage 5 thinking was more prevalent in the USA than either Mexico or Taiwan – this stage was reached by participants in these two countries at a later age. 15 Questions | By Rgbordelon | Last updated: Jul 21, 2020 | Total Attempts: 7337 . Rather than confirm the existence of a single highest stage, Larry Walker's cluster analysis of a wide variety of interview and survey variables for moral exemplars found three types: the "caring" or "communal" cluster was strongly relational and generative, the "deliberative" cluster had sophisticated epistemic and moral reasoning, and the "brave" or "ordinary" cluster was less distinguished by personality. Good boy-good girl orientation (pleasing others) and 4. Progress through Kohlberg's stages happens as a result of the individual's increasing competence, both psychologically and in balancing conflicting social-value claims. Reasoners at this level judge the morality of an action by its direct consequences. They try to be a "good boy" or "good girl" to live up to these expectations, having learned that being regarded as good benefits the self. LS23 6AD, Tel: +44 0844 800 0085 Some participants had not reached the final stage of moral development by the end of the study. Some individuals never reach this level of moral development.  Expanding on Piaget's work, Kohlberg determined that the process of moral development was principally concerned with justice and that it continued throughout the individual's life, a notion that led to dialogue on the philosophical implications of such research. The pre-conventional level of moral reasoning is especially common in children and is expected to occur in animals, although adults can also exhibit this level of reasoning. Choose an answer and hit 'next'. All rights reserved. "I want to be liked and thought well of; apparently, not being naughty makes people like me." Background and aim: Motivated by Piaget’s theory of moral development, Kohlberg gradually developed his own ideas and suggested that we have three levels of moral thinking and within each of these levels there are two related stages.