[35] In later myth, her husband was the god Nergal. The Sumerians envisioned the universe as a closed dome surrounded by a primordial saltwater sea. Martu, later known as Amurru, is a god who destroys cities and "rages over the land like a storm". By the time these works were written, the worship of Yahweh had undergone a dramatic transformation from what it had been in the early days of the Israelites in Canaan. He is generally involved in the creation of the world and/or the creation of humans. Ninsar is the daughter of Enki and Ninhursag. Ereshkigal was the goddess of the Sumerian Underworld, which was known as Kur. Early Sumerian cuneiform was used primarily as a record-keeping tool; it was not until the late early dynastic period that religious writings first became prevalent as temple praise hymns[5] and as a form of "incantation" called the nam-šub (prefix + "to cast"). The primordial saltwater sea was named Nammu, who became known as Tiamat during and after the Sumerian Renaissance. "Yahweh." He was describe… Ereshkigal is the queen of the Mesopotamian Underworld. (2018, October 22). He was the ancestor of all the other major deities[36] and the original patron deity of Uruk. Yahweh-as-warrior is evident throughout the Hebrew scriptures which became the Christian Old Testament and warrior imagery is also apparent in passages in the New Testament which drew on the earlier works (ex: Ephesians 6:11, Philippians 2:25, II Timothy 2:3-4, I Corinthians 9:7, among others). Enlil separated heaven from earth and claimed the earth as his domain. This fit with the theory that Yahweh was a desert god whom the Hebrews adopted in their exodus from Egypt to Canaan. In this passage from Deuteronomy, El gives each of the gods authority over a segment of the people of earth and Yahweh is assigned to the Israelites who, in time, will make him their supreme and only deity; but it is clear he existed beforehand as a lesser Canaanite god. His name is composed of four Hebrew consonants (YHWH, known as the Tetragrammaton) which the prophet Moses is said to have revealed to his people. [12] These priests would clothe the statues[10] and place feasts before them so they could "eat". They did not, however, embrace monotheism at this time. [13]:179–180, The majority of Sumerian deities belonged to a classification called the Anunna (“[offspring] of An”), whereas seven deities, including Enlil and Inanna, belonged to a group of “underworld judges" known as the Anunnaki (“[offspring] of An” + Ki). Written by Joshua J. The Bible does mention other nations worshipping Yahweh and how the god arrived from Edom to help the Israelites in warfare (Deuteronomy 33:2, Judges 5:4-5) but this is not the central narrative. [citation needed], Some stories recorded in the older parts of the Hebrew Bible bear strong similarities to the stories in Sumerian mythology. By Nissim Amzallag, Babylon: Mesopotamia and the Birth of Civilization, A History of the Ancient Near East ca. [26] An was identified with all the stars of the equatorial sky, Enlil with those of the northern sky, and Enki with those of the southern sky. ", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=List_of_Mesopotamian_deities&oldid=985225036, Short description is different from Wikidata, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Enlil, later known as Ellil, is the god of wind, air, earth, and storms. Nindara is a minor god who was sometimes considered the consort of the goddess.