In 747, he successfully initiated an open revolt against Umayyad rule, which was carried out under the sign of the black flag. The defeat of the Byzantine Emperor Heraclius at the Battle of Yarmouk opened the way for Muslim expansion into Jerusalem and Syria. Bilal Ibn Rabah’s acceptance of Islam is a powerful story, involving slavery, conversion, torture, and rescue. The grandmother of Yazid was Hind as the grandmother of Imam Husayn was Lady Khadija, the first lady who embraced Islam. He turned around and said: Mu’awiyyah! Hind, the wife of Abu-Sofyan, who had also lost her father, son and uncle, had appointed a black slave just to kill Hamza, the uncle of the prophet, cut open his chest, remove his liver and hand it over to Hind in order for her to chew it so that she might satisfy her anger, and this she did. [30][31] He appointed his family members as governors over the regions successively conquered under Umar and himself, namely much of the Sasanian Empire, i.e. According to one common view, the Umayyads transformed the caliphate from a religious institution (during the Rashidun caliphate) to a dynastic one. This collective use continued until the reign of the Umayyad caliph al-Walid I, when the prayer space became inadequate both in terms of capacity and the need for an architectural monument to represent the new religion. The objectives given to Musa ibn Umar were identical to those given to other Muslim commanders, to teach the Quran, secure the taxation or tribute, to protect and safeguard the security of the country and to affirm its loyalty to the capital of the Umayyads in Damascus.[94][95]. The army of Islam won the battle and Yazid was appointed as the governor of Syria. Umaya Name Meaning. [27] Yazid died shortly after and Umar appointed his brother Mu'awiya in his place. The evidence for that is the aayah (interpretation of the meaning): [59] The caliph applied a decentralized approach to governing Iraq by forging alliances with its tribal nobility, such as the Kufan leader al-Ash'ath ibn Qays, and entrusting the administration of Kufa and Basra to highly experienced members of the Thaqif tribe, al-Mughira ibn Shu'ba and the latter's protege Ziyad ibn Abihi (whom Mu'awiya adopted as his half-brother), respectively. Her publications include. [74] Ibn Bahdal favored Mu'awiya II's brothers Khalid and Abd Allah for the succession, but they were viewed as too young and inexperienced by most of the pro-Umayyad tribal nobility in Syria. They unanimously replied: “We are happy with Abdul-Rahman Ibn Khalid.” Mu’awiyyah, who was thinking of his son, Yazid, got upset but did not say a word and swallowed his anger. Muʿāwiyah then established himself as the first Umayyad caliph. All content on this website, including dictionary, thesaurus, literature, geography, and other reference data is for informational purposes only. Umayyah ibn Khalaf ibn Safwan whose kunya was Abu Ali, or Abu Safwan, was a Meccan Arab, a leading member of the Quraish and head of Bani Jumah.He was an opponent of the Muslims led by Muhammad and is best known as the master of Bilal ibn Rabah, a slave he tortured for converting to Islam.. Other transliterations of his name include Umayya, Umaya, Umaiiya and Umaiya. Tom Holland writes [129] Christians, Jews, Samaritans and Manichaeans were all treated well by Muawiyah. [45] The decision to arbitrate fundamentally weakened Ali's political position as he was forced to negotiate with Mu'awiya on equal terms, while it drove a significant number of his supporters, who became known as the Kharijites, to revolt. For the restored Umayyad caliphate in the Iberian Peninsula, see, "Umayyad" redirects here. Often, people who despise Islam end up embracing Islam wholeheartedly further down the line. Hisham was succeeded by Al-Walid II (743–44), the son of Yazid II. The Prophet said: ‘May God curse the rider and the one in front and in the back.’4. In his efforts to spread Islam, he established liberties for the Mawali by abolishing the jizya tax for converts to Islam. As the central power of the Umayyad rulers waned in the later years of the dynasty, some governors neglected to send the extra tax revenue to Damascus and created great personal fortunes. The plot was carried out. His marriage to Maysum was politically motivated. Last Updated: November 4, 2020 2:41 am GMT. The same with Omar and Uthman. Moreover, the Umayyads came to power at the expense of ʿAlī, the son-in-law of Muḥammad and the fourth pre-Umayyad caliph, whose family was considered by some to be the rightful dynasty. Umair is also the name of a brave Sahabi (companion of the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah upon him and his companions), whose full name was Umair bin Wahb. Sulayman was succeeded by his cousin, Umar ibn Abd al-Aziz (717–720), whose position among the Umayyad caliphs is somewhat unusual. Abu-Bakr, in return, as a reward, appointed his son Yazid, brother of Mu’awiyyah, as the commander-in-chief of an army which was dispatched for a battle in the then border of Islam, Damascus. [30], Uthman's nepotism provoked the ire of the Ansar and the members of the shura. The son of a prominent Byzantine official of Damascus, he was a favourite of the early Umayyad caliphs Mu'awiya I and Yazid I, and served as the head of the fiscal administration for Syria from the mid-7th century until the year 700, when Caliph Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan dismissed him as part of his efforts to Arabicize the administration of the Caliphate. The governor was in charge of the religious officials, army leaders, police, and civil administrators in his province. Therefore, in order to have the support of a tribe you just needed to satisfy the leaders of the tribe. Muawiyah also declared his son, Yazid, as his successor in breach of a treaty with Hassan, Muhammad's grandson. It was the first time a pope had paid a visit to a mosque. [110], The Umayyad army was mainly Arab, with its core consisting of those who had settled in urban Syria and the Arab tribes who originally served in the army of the Eastern Roman empire in Syria. The Umayyads meddled with the register and the recipients regarded pensions as the subsistence allowance even without being in active service.