[d] The silent endurance by the companions of the Prophet (S) and the next generation (Tabi’een),10 was not on account of their approval of Yazid’s evil character, but because they did not like bloodshed and therefore they did not consider it proper to assist him. [5] In the view of Bernard Lewis, Yazid was a capable ruler but was overly criticized by later Arab historians. Reports vary from 22 AH to 30 AH. Al-Waleed recalled his men believing that ibn az-Zubair would keep his promise. The fundamental requisite of Islamic rule is justice and equity and there was never a person more just than Imam Husayn (a.s.). A validation e-mail has been sent to your e-mail address. Yazid died on 12 November 683 at Huwwarin, aged between 35 and 39. Yazid appointed his kin and his henchmen as Governors of various provinces. The Medinese renounced their allegiance to Yazid upon hearing these details and expelled the governor and all Umayyads residing in the city. The rest were forced to retire, unable to withstand the shear size and weaponry of this murderous army of Yazid, they took refuge in mosques (including the Holy Prophet's mosque) in order to save their lives. Resigning from the Caliphate. [5], Despite his reputation in religious circles, academic historians generally portray a more favourable view of Yazid. It was these same ignorant people who in the name of the Qur'an and claiming to defend the rights of every Muslim, disregarded the divine commandments and made corruption a commonplace in the society of the day. Imam Husayn (a.s.) became angry at the audacity of Marwan and raised his voice in protest, and the Hashimites, who were waiting outside, immediately rushed in.2 On realizing that the situation has become volatile, Marwan slunk away through a back door and al-Waleed pacified Imam Husayn (a.s.). Thus, people in Syria pledged their allegiance to Mu'awiya, and people in Mecca pledged their allegiance to 'Abd Allah b. al-Zubayr. [15], Shortly before or immediately after Yazid's accession, the veteran commander and disgraced governor of Iraq and the vast eastern province of Khurasan, Yazid ibn al-Muhallab, escaped from the fortress of Aleppo where Umar II had him imprisoned. Instead of going to al-Waleed, ibn az-Zubair collected the members of his clan and his followers and sat with them in the safety of his house. — may Allah's peace and blessings be on him and his progeny) who said: "The murderer of my son Husayn, ‘alayhi 's-salam (a.s.—peace be upon him), is a bastard" ; which also applies to Shimr, Ibn Sa‘d and Ibn Ziyad since all of them were born out of wedlock. Yazid led several campaigns against the Byzantine Empire and in 670 participated in an attack on Constantinople. Imam Husayn (a.s.), as his father Imam Ali (a.s.), never aspired for political leadership, but he expressed his reservations against the sinful and debauch Yazid’s taking control of the affairs of the Islamic world. His mother was Maysoon, a Christian planted by the Christians to avenge the defeat conceded by them when they were confronted by the Prophet (S) at the event of Mubahala. It is due to us that creatures get their sustenance, and it is due to us that life continues. His appointment was the first hereditary succession in Islamic history. 724–743). [9], An anecdote told of Yazid is that his wife Su'da learning he was pining for an expensive slave girl, purchased this slave girl and presented her to Yazid as a gift. They returned to Medina in a state of profound unease; when they had told the people of the situation, a large group of men gathered and rose in defiance of the murderous regime. [16][17] During Sulayman's reign, Ibn al-Muhallab, an enemy of al-Hajjaj, had been responsible for the torture and deaths of members of al-Hajjaj's family, Yazid's in-laws, and feared retaliatory maltreatment when Yazid's accession became apparent. He never, as is the wont of men, sought glory for himself because of his royal rank, but lived as a citizen along with all the common people". Later, siege was laid to Mecca, which lasted for several weeks. She is often confused with Umm Hashim Fakhita bint Abi Hashim, mother of Muawiya's half-brother Khalid ibn Yazid. From this moment onwards the ranks of those rebellions to the government of Yazid grew larger day by day; cries of 'death to Yazid and his corruption' rang out all around Medina. [25][26] According to one account, the city was not plundered, only the leaders of the rebellion were executed. The murderous commander acting as his master Yazid would have done allowed his army the total freedom of the city for three days; taking advantage of this permission, Yazid's mercenaries gave free rein to their base animal-like instincts. According to some sources, Yazid born in 26/646-7, his father was Mu'awiya b. Abu Sufyan and his mother was Maysun bt. Other sources believe that he was 19, 20, or 21. Following his accession, after Muawiya's death in 680, Husayn and Abd Allah ibn al-Zubayr refused to recognize him and fled to sanctuary in Mecca. Moreover, because of his habits of drinking, dancing and hunting, and keeping pet animals such as dogs and monkeys, he is considered to have been impious and unworthy of leading the Muslim community. [32], Yazid is considered an evil figure by many Muslims, especially by Shias. [1] The reinstatement of the jizya in Khurasan in 721/22 by Ibn Hubayra's deputy Sa'id ibn Amr al-Harashi led to revolts and wars in the province that continued for twenty years and partly contributed to the Abbasid Revolution. [2] According to G. R. Hawting, he tried to continue the diplomatic policies of his father. [20] It also helped crystallize opposition to Yazid into an anti-Umayyad movement based on Alid aspirations,[21] and contributed to the development of Shi'ite identity. On the way to the city, he received the news of Ibn Aqil's death and that the Kufans had changed sides. During the battle between Umayyad forces and 'Abd Allah b. al-Zubayr (who had claimed to be a caliph in Mecca), Yazid b. Mu'awiya died in Syria, and upon hearing the news, Umayyad armed forces returned from Mecca to Syria. These savage godless men acting in accordance with the saying 'the way the common people live is dictated by the behaviour of their kings' imitated the behaviour of Yazid, following the example of their savage, debauched tyrant king they subjected those who had fled to the mosques to unspeakable atrocities. When al-Waleed sent his henchmen who abused ibn az-Zubair and demanded that he should come out and meet al-Waleed immediately or else be killed. [1][14] For much of his reign, he resided in Damascus or his estates in Jund al-Urdunn (the military district of Jordan),[1] which was centered in Tiberias and roughly corresponded with the Byzantine province of Palaestina Secunda. Ibn Ziyad brutally suppressed the rebellion and killed Ibn Aqil. Other historical accounts hold that he died because of illness. [29], Yazid died on 12 November 683 at Huwwarin, aged between 35 and 39. His mother had slept with one of his father's slaves and the despicable, wine-drinking Yazid who was supposed to be the son of Mu‘awiyah was really the offspring of that slave. He arrested and made prisoners the supporters of Ali (a. s.) . [6] Although during his youth he spent his springs in the desert with his Bedouin kin, for the remainder of the year he was in the company of the Greek and native Syrian courtiers of his father,[8] who became caliph in 661. Muawiya followed and threatened some of them with death, but they still refused to support him. [45] The order was reversed by Caliph Hisham ibn Abd al-Malik (r. Marwan faced resistance to this announcement, especially from Husayn ibn Ali, Abd Allah ibn al-Zubayr, Abd Allah ibn Umar and Abd al-Rahman ibn Abi Bakr. So leave this matter to Allah. On the following night also, al-Waleed’s men could not find Imam Husayn (a.s.) in his house, as the Imam (a.s.) had gone to visit the tombs of his mother and brother. [c] At page 254 of Preface to History (Muqaddimat at-Tareekh) is mentioned, ‘the fact that the Islamic scholars are united in admitting the irreligiousness of Yazid and they hold that such a person can not be an Islamic ruler and that any action taken against him can not be construed as impermissible. They were already building a power base that they would later use to topple the Umayyads in 750 CE. They have conspired to legitimize Yazid’s oppressive and tyrannous rule to downplay Imam Husayn’s sacrifice and martyrdom by declaring Imam Husayn (a.s.) to be a militant against the established rule.12. He also led the hajj (the annual Muslim pilgrimage to Mecca) on several occasions. When asked for his pledge of allegiance to Yazid, Husayn responded that giving his allegiance in private would be insufficient, such a thing should be given in public. Marwan accosted the Imam and said, “I advice you to swear allegiance to Yazid and reap the benefits.” The Imam (a.s.) replied, “It is because of us [the infallible pones] God opened up creation. [16] Yazid had long held suspicions, nurtured by al-Hajjaj, of Ibn al-Muhallab's and the Muhallabid family's influence and ambitions in Iraq and the eastern Caliphate. Modern historians present a milder view of him, and consider him a capable ruler, albeit less successful than his father. [16] On Yazid's orders Basra's governor Adi ibn Artat al-Fazari arrested many of Ibn al-Muhallab's brothers and cousins before his arrival to the city. Yazid openly derided the Holy Prophet (S) and Islam. and towards other Mosques of the Muslims. The terrified ibn az-Zubair sent his brother Ja’far to plead with al-Waleed to withdraw his men, with a promise that ibn az-Zubair would meet al-Waleed in the morning. He committed many other despic- able crimes which are at least as famous as those we have listed. However, after a while they injured and murdered him. After plundering the city for three days and forcing the rebels to renew their allegiance, the Syrian army headed for Mecca to subdue Ibn al-Zubayr. On the other hand, he deserves to be cursed and God’s curse is upon his accomplices and assistants. [24] To counter the growing influence of Ibn al-Zubayr in Medina, Yazid invited notables of the city to Damascus and tried to win them over with gifts and presents. On seeing that the letter contained the command to kill him, Imam Husayn suggested that al-Waleed should gather the people of Medina in a public meeting and ascertain their opinion whether Imam Husayn (a.s.) should take the oath of allegiance acknowledging Yazid’s sovereignty. Thereupon he installed him as his successor at an official ceremony. Secondly, the clandestine departure through secret routes shows that ibn az-Zubair had political aspirations, whereas Imam Husayn (a.s.) had no such intention. He appointed his cousin al-Waleed bin … The Imam (a.s.) replied that for the present he was heading to Mecca. Mu'awiya b. Yazid's period of caliphate was very short. Yazid was the Caliph as appointed by his father Muawiyah I and ruled for three years from 680 CE until his death in 683 CE. Yazīd ibn Mu‘āwiya ibn Abī Sufyān, Arabic: يزيد بن معاوية بن أبي سفيان ‎ ( 20 July 647 – 11 November 683), commonly known as Yazid I, was the second Caliph of the Umayyad Caliphate (and the first one through inheritance). When the ultimatum ended, a battle started in which the Medinese were defeated. In any case, Marwan ibn Hakam became caliph afterwards and the Sufyanid caliphatecame to an end. He was the son of Caliph Abd al-Malik (r. 685–705) and his influential wife Atika, the daughter of Yazid II's namesake, Caliph Yazid I (r. 680–683). His grandmother was Hind who chewed the martyr Hamza’s liver. He ruled for three years from 680 until his death in 683. Above all is the dispute whether Yazid deserves to be cursed or not. Act so fiercely that they have no chance to do anything before giving the oath of allegiance. Yazid, by descent or by himself, never possessed any noble qualities. Enter valid first name and last name with at least one space. Ibn Aqil informed Husayn of the large-scale support he found in Kufa, signalling that the latter should enter the city. You will need to follow the instructions in that message in order to gain full access to the site.