Before Australia was inhabited by the colonial societies, the indigenous Australia had lived here for more than 40,000 years. In 1788 the British First Fleet of 11 ships, carrying about 1500 people arrived at Botany Bay (Sydney). The first, that of the HMS Endeavour, left England in August 1768 and had its climax on April 20, 1770, when a crewman sighted southeastern Australia. The early economy relied on barter for exchange, an issue which Governor Lachlan Macquarie tried to fix first by introducing Spanish dollars, and then by establishing the Bank of New South Wales with the authority to issue financial instruments. The didgeridoo is one of the oldest wind instruments in the world. The food situation reached crisis point in 1790 and the Second Fleet which finally arrived in June 1790 had lost a quarter of its "passengers" through sickness, while the condition of the convicts of the Third Fleet appalled Phillip. They left great rock paintings. The colony suffered from a long-term shortage of labour, and by 1850 local capitalists had succeeded in persuading London to send convicts. Viceroys of Spain’s American empire regularly sought new lands. He had petitioned the British government for self-determination in 1827. The official currency of the colonies was the British pound, but the unofficial currency and most readily accepted trade good was rum. In 1897, Catherine Helen Spence became the first female political candidate.. The French explorer Joseph-Antoine Raymond de Bruni, chevalier d’Entrecasteaux, also did significant work, especially in southern Tasmania. George Bass and Matthew Flinders sailed south to Tasmania and a colony was started at Hobart in 1803. They were likewise to have the labour of a certain number of convicts, who were also to be provided with two years' rations and one year's clothing from the public stores. They have never been subdued, therefore they are not rebellious subjects, but an injured nation, defending in their own way, their rightful possessions which have been torn from them by force.. , In 1840, the Adelaide City Council and the Sydney City Council were established. This was the background for the three voyages of Captain James Cook on behalf of the British Admiralty. leg-irons), or being transported to a stricter penal colony. By contrast with New Zealand, where the Treaty of Waitangi was seen to legitimise British settlement, no treaty was signed with the Eora people of Sydney Cove, nor any of the other Aboriginal peoples in Australia. They were: Thomas Rose, a farmer from Dorset, his wife and four children; he was allowed a grant of 120 acres; Frederic Meredith, who had formerly been at Sydney with HMS Sirius; Thomas Webb (who had also been formerly at Sydney with the Sirius), his wife, and his nephew, Joseph Webb; Edward Powell, who had formerly been at Sydney with the Juliana transport, and who married a free woman after his arrival.  The reformist attorney general, John Plunkett, sought to apply Enlightenment principles to governance in the colony, pursuing the establishment of equality before the law, first by extending jury rights to emancipists, then by extending legal protections to convicts, assigned servants and Aboriginal peoples. Several other navigators, including merchantmen, filled out knowledge of the Bass Strait area; most notable was the discovery of Port Phillip in 1802. He repeated this success in 1790 and, because of the pressing need for food production in the colony, was rewarded by Governor Phillip with the first land grant made in New South Wales.  Land grants were abandoned in 1831 in favour of selling crown lands, which covered all land deemed "unsettled".  Many of the officers retired, and were later known as the 'faction of 1808' and as an influential and conservative element in the politics of the colony. Robert J. There is also evidence that the Aboriginal people used farming methods. of January 1901 saw Australia become an independent nation, ushering in a new era of autonomy for the 6 former British colonies. “The History of Liberty in Australia.” Policy 23 (1): 33–36. When you blow into it, it produces a very deep, hollow sound. Free immigrants began arriving in the 1790s.. Asian and Oceanic mariners and traders were in contact with Indigenous Australians for many centuries before the European expansion into the Eastern Hemisphere. The inherently racist. The population today is still relatively small for such a large country as Australia – just under 22 million people. The British were not the first Europeans to chart Australian territory—French, Dutch, Spanish and Portuguese explorers had all sailed the seas of Australia’s vast coastline—Captain James Cook, however, a captain and explorer in the Royal Navy, was the first to map the eastern coastline, claiming it as British territory in 1770. King, "What brought Lapérouse to Botany Bay?". Appropriately, Flinders urged that the name Australia replace New Holland, and this change received official backing from 1817. King, "The Territorial Boundaries of New South Wales in 1788". There is also evidence that the Aboriginal people used farming methods. In the 20th century the Australian government wanted to integrate Aboriginal people into white society. Female convicts, who made up 20% of the convict population, were usually assigned as domestic help to soldiers. In simple physical terms, the age of much of the continent is certainly impressive—most of the rocks providing the foundation of Australian landforms were formed during Precambrian and Paleozoic time (some 4.6 billion to 252 million years ago)—but the ages of the cores of all the continents are approximately the same. of matters to be brought before Cabinet’, State Library of New South Wales, Dixon 12Library Add. This was at a time when Britain and France were trying to be the first to discover and colonise Australia. Both claimed in 1908; territories formed in 1962 (British Antarctic Territory) and 1985 (South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands). Before the arrival of European settlers, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples inhabited most areas of the Australian continent. Its history was to be checkered; settlement was abandoned in 1813 and revived in 1825 to provide a jail for convicts who misbehaved in Australia. , The Australian began publishing in 1824, as did The Monitor in 1826, and the The Sydney Morning Herald in 1831. The conditions they had come out under were that they should be provided with a free passage, be furnished with agricultural tools and implements by the Government, have two years' provisions, and have grants of land free of expense. The government therefore endorsed the English Benedictines to lead the early Church in the Colony. Thomas Mitchell went inland, and found more rivers. Phillip's personal intent was to establish harmonious relations with local Aboriginal people and try to reform as well as discipline the convicts of the colony. Melleuish, Greg. For some people he is a criminal, others think that he was a hero because he fought against injustice and wanted a better life for the poor. This would have most likely been at a time when the sea levels were low, the land was more humid and animals larger. The First Fleet sailed on May 13, 1787, with 11 vessels, including 6 transports, aboard which were about 730 convicts (570 men and 160 women).  This division was also affected by that between 'emancipists' (former convicts) and 'exclusivists' (land-owning free settlers). The colony was formally proclaimed by Governor Phillip on 7 February 1788 at Sydney. A theory had developed that the inland rivers of New South Wales were draining into an inland sea. , William Wentworth established the Australian Patriotic Association (Australia's first political party) in 1835 to demand democratic government for New South Wales. Reynolds quotes numerous writings by settlers who, in the first half of the nineteenth century, described themselves as living in fear and even in terror due to attacks by Aboriginal people determined to kill them or drive them off their lands. He (and some later Roman Catholic historians) saw this as the discovery of the southern land. From 1791 however, the more regular arrival of ships and the beginnings of trade lessened the feeling of isolation and improved supplies..